ECMO for paediatric cardiac arrest

The Taiwanese are at it again with their extracorporeal life support. This time, they report their outcomes in children who received ECMO for in-hospital cardiac arrest. Interestingly, the patients with pure cardiac causes of cardiac arrest had a survival rate similar to patients with non-cardiac causes.


PURPOSE: The study aims to describe 11 years of experience with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for in-hospital paediatric cardiac arrest in a university affiliated tertiary care hospital.

METHODS: Paediatric patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during active extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) at our centre from 1999 to 2009 were included in this retrospective study. The results from three different cohorts (1999-2001, 2002-2005 and 2006-2009) were compared. Survival rates and neurological outcomes were analysed. Favourable neurological outcome was defined as paediatric cerebral performance categories (PCPC) 1, 2 and 3.

RESULTS: We identified 54 ECPR events. The survival rate to hospital discharge was 46% (25/54), and 21 (84%) of the survivors had favourable neurological outcomes. The duration of CPR was 39±17 min in the survivors and 52±45 min in the non-survivors (p=NS). The patients with pure cardiac causes of cardiac arrest had a survival rate similar to patients with non-cardiac causes (47% (18/38) vs. 44% (7/16), p=NS). The non-survivors had higher serum lactate levels prior to ECPR (13.4±6.4 vs. 8.8±5.1 mmol/L, p<0.01) and more renal failure after ECPR (66% (19/29) vs. 20% (5/25), p<0.01). The patients resuscitated between 2006 and 2009 had shorter durations of CPR (34±13 vs. 78±76 min, p=0.032) and higher rates of survival (55% (16/29) vs. 0% (0/8), p=0.017) than those resuscitated between 1999 and 2002.

CONCLUSIONS: In our single-centre experience with ECPR for paediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest, the duration of CPR has become shorter and outcomes have improved in recent years. Higher pre-ECPR lactate levels and the presence of post-ECPR renal failure were associated with increased mortality. The presence of non-cardiac causes of cardiac arrest did not preclude successful ECPR outcomes. The duration of CPR was not significantly associated with poor outcomes in this study.

Eleven years of experience with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for paediatric patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest
Resuscitation. 2012 Jun;83(6):710-4