What’s with all the chloride? An assault on salt

I continue to be bewildered at my ED colleagues’ overwhelming preference for 0.9% saline as a resuscitation fluid regardless of clinical presentation. However, I have to acknowledge a lack of robust high level clinical evidence demonstrating its relative harm compared with more balanced solutions such as Hartmann’s / Ringer’s lactate or one of the more scarcely available Plasma-Lyte solutions.

Human and animal studies have demonstrated that saline exacerbates hyperchloraemia and metabolic acidosis and has renal effects including renal vasoconstriction and decreased glomerular filtration rate. A large observational study on surgical patients suggested that saline therapy increases the risk of patients requiring acute dialysis compared with Plasma-Lyte administration(1).

A new study in JAMA provides some further clinical evidence that saline has harmful renal effects(2). It was a before-and-after observational study, in which the change was a restriction in chloride-rich fluids so that they were made available only after prescription by the attending specialist for specific conditions (eg, hyponatraemia, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral oedema). Four of the authors published another study on the metabolic effects of this changed fluid strategy, presumably on the same or an overlapping cohort of patients, which I blogged about here.

Significant findings were that the chloride-restrictive strategy was associated with a significantly lower increase in serum creatinine level during ICU stay, a decrease in the incidence of renal injury and failure (according to the RIFLE definitions), and a decrease in renal replacement therapy. These effects persisted after adjusting for known contributors to acute kidney injury.

As this is not a randomised trial cause and effect cannot be assumed, but this is consistent with other work.

In summary, keep pushing the saline if you want to increase your patients’ risk of acute kidney injury and the need for dialysis, whilst rendering them acidotic. You may even decrease their gut perfusion(3) and give them abdominal discomfort and subjective decreased cognitive ability(4). Alternatively, give Hartmann’s / Ringer’s lactate… although bear in mind that might not be such a good choice in the context of hyponatraemia, alkalaemia, cerebral oedema, or traumatic brain injury.

1. Major complications, mortality, and resource utilization after open abdominal surgery: 0.9% saline compared to Plasma-Lyte
Ann Surg. 2012 May;255(5):821-9

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of 0.9% saline use versus a calcium-free physiologically balanced crystalloid solution with major morbidity and clinical resource use after abdominal surgery.

BACKGROUND: 0.9% saline, which results in a hyperchloremic acidosis after infusion, is frequently used to replace volume losses after major surgery.

METHODS: An observational study using the Premier Perspective Comparative Database was performed to evaluate adult patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery who received either 0.9% saline (30,994 patients) or a balanced crystalloid solution (926 patients) on the day of surgery. The primary outcome was major morbidity and secondary outcomes included minor complications and acidosis-related interventions. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression and propensity scoring models.

RESULTS: For the entire cohort, the in-hospital mortality was 5.6% in the saline group and 2.9% in the balanced group (P < 0.001). One or more major complications occurred in 33.7% of the saline group and 23% of the balanced group (P < 0.001). In the 3:1 propensity-matched sample, treatment with balanced fluid was associated with fewer complications (odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.97). Postoperative infection (P = 0.006), renal failure requiring dialysis (P < 0.001), blood transfusion (P < 0.001), electrolyte disturbance (P = 0.046), acidosis investigation (P < 0.001), and intervention (P = 0.02) were all more frequent in patients receiving 0.9% saline.

CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitals in the Premier Perspective Database, the use of a calcium-free balanced crystalloid for replacement of fluid losses on the day of major surgery was associated with less postoperative morbidity than 0.9% saline.

2. Association Between a Chloride-Liberal vs Chloride-Restrictive Intravenous Fluid Administration Strategy and Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Adults
JAMA. 2012 Oct 17;308(15):1566-72

CONTEXT: Administration of traditional chloride-liberal intravenous fluids may precipitate acute kidney injury (AKI).

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of a chloride-restrictive (vs chloride-liberal) intravenous fluid strategy with AKI in critically ill patients.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Prospective, open-label, sequential period pilot study of 760 patients admitted consecutively to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the control period (February 18 to August 17, 2008) compared with 773 patients admitted consecutively during the intervention period (February 18 to August 17, 2009) at a university-affiliated hospital in Melbourne, Australia.

INTERVENTIONS: During the control period, patients received standard intravenous fluids. After a 6-month phase-out period (August 18, 2008, to February 17, 2009), any use of chloride-rich intravenous fluids (0.9% saline, 4% succinylated gelatin solution, or 4% albumin solution) was restricted to attending specialist approval only during the intervention period; patients instead received a lactated solution (Hartmann solution), a balanced solution (Plasma-Lyte 148), and chloride-poor 20% albumin.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes included increase from baseline to peak creatinine level in the ICU and incidence of AKI according to the risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage (RIFLE) classification. Secondary post hoc analysis outcomes included the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), length of stay in ICU and hospital, and survival.

RESULTS Chloride administration decreased by 144 504 mmol (from 694 to 496 mmol/patient) from the control period to the intervention period. Comparing the control period with the intervention period, the mean serum creatinine level increase while in the ICU was 22.6 μmol/L (95% CI, 17.5-27.7 μmol/L) vs 14.8 μmol/L (95% CI, 9.8-19.9 μmol/L) (P = .03), the incidence of injury and failure class of RIFLE-defined AKI was 14% (95% CI, 11%-16%; n = 105) vs 8.4% (95% CI, 6.4%-10%; n = 65) (P < .001), and the use of RRT was 10% (95% CI, 8.1%-12%; n = 78) vs 6.3% (95% CI, 4.6%-8.1%; n = 49) (P = .005). After adjustment for covariates, this association remained for incidence of injury and failure class of RIFLE-defined AKI (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.37-0.75]; P < .001) and use of RRT (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.33-0.81]; P = .004). There were no differences in hospital mortality, hospital or ICU length of stay, or need for RRT after hospital discharge.

CONCLUSION The implementation of a chloride-restrictive strategy in a tertiary ICU was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of AKI and use of RRT.

3. The effects of balanced versus saline-based hetastarch and crystalloid solutions on acid-base and electrolyte status and gastric mucosal perfusion in elderly surgical patients
Anesth Analg. 2001 Oct;93(4):811-6
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The IV administration of sodium chloride solutions may produce a metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal dysfunction. We designed this trial to determine whether, in elderly surgical patients, crystalloid and colloid solutions with a more physiologically balanced electrolyte formulation, such as Hartmann’s solution and Hextend, can provide a superior metabolic environment and improved indices of organ perfusion when compared with saline-based fluids. Forty-seven elderly patients undergoing major surgery were randomly allocated to one of two study groups. Patients in the Balanced Fluid group received an intraoperative fluid regimen that consisted of Hartmann’s solution and 6% hetastarch in balanced electrolyte and glucose injection (Hextend). Patients in the Saline group were given 0.9% sodium chloride solution and 6% hetastarch in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (Hespan). Biochemical indices and acid-base balance were determined. Gastric tonometry was used as a reflection of splanchnic perfusion. Postoperative chloride levels demonstrated a larger increase in the Saline group than the Balanced Fluid group (9.8 vs 3.3 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Postoperative standard base excess showed a larger decline in the Saline group than the Balanced Fluid group (-5.5 vs -0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Two-thirds of patients in the Saline group, but none in the Balanced Fluid group, developed postoperative hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (P = 0.0001). Gastric tonometry indicated a larger increase in the CO2 gap during surgery in the Saline group compared with the Balanced Fluid group (1.7 vs 0.9 kPa, P = 0.0394). In this study, the use of balanced crystalloid and colloid solutions in elderly surgical patients prevented the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and resulted in improved gastric mucosal perfusion when compared with saline-based solutions.
IMPLICATIONS: This prospective, randomized, blinded trial showed that, in elderly surgical patients, the use of balanced IV solutions can prevent the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and provide better gastric mucosal perfusion compared with saline-based fluids.

4. The effect of intravenous lactated Ringer’s solution versus 0.9% sodium chloride solution on serum osmolality in human volunteers.
Anesth Analg. 1999 May;88(5):999-1003
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Animal studies have shown that large volumes of IV lactated Ringer’s solution (LR) decrease serum osmolality, thereby increasing cerebral water. These studies have led to recommendations to limit LR to avoid cerebral edema in neurosurgical patients. Eighteen healthy human volunteers aged 20-48 yr received 50 mL/kg LR over 1 h on one occasion and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) on another. Venous samples were taken at baseline (T1), at infusion end (T2), and 1 h after T2 (T3). Time until first urination was noted. With LR, serum osmolality decreased by 4+/-3 mOsm/kg from T1 to T2 and increased insignificantly with NS. At T3, osmolality returned almost to baseline in the LR group. Blood pH increased from T1 to T2 with LR by 0.04+/-0.04 and decreased with NS by 0.04+/-0.04. These pH changes persisted at T3. Subjective mental changes occurred only with NS. Abdominal discomfort was more common with NS. Time until first urination was longer with NS (106+/-11 min) than with LR (75+/-10 min) (P < 0.001). In healthy humans, an infusion of large volumes of LR, but not NS, transiently decreased serum osmolality, whereas acidosis associated with NS persisted and urinary output was slower with NS.

IMPLICATIONS: Large volumes of lactated Ringer’s solution administered to healthy humans produced small transient changes in serum osmolality. Large volumes of sodium chloride did not change osmolality but resulted in lower pH.