CEM 2014: RSI – does one size fit all?

These are the references for my talk given at the College of Emergency Medicine Annual Scientific Conference at Exeter University on 9 September 2014

RSI in the ED in the UK
Kerslake D, Oglesby AJ, Di Rollo N, James E, McKeown DW, Ray DC, et al. Tracheal intubation in an urban emergency department in Scotland: A prospective, observational study of 3738 intubations. Resuscitation 2015 Apr 1;89:20–4

Benger J, Hopkinson S. Rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in UK emergency departments: a national census. Emerg Med J. 2011 Mar 1;28(3):217–20

Reid C. The who, where, and what of rapid sequence intubation: prospective observational study of emergency RSI outside the operating theatre. Emerg Med J. 2004 May 1;21(3):296–301 Full text

Graham CA. Advanced airway management in the emergency department: what are the training and skills maintenance needs for UK emergency physicians? Emerg Med J; 2004 Jan 1;21(1):14–9 Full text

Simpson J. Rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department: 5 year trends. Emerg Med J. 2006 Jan 1;23(1):54–6 Full text

Simpson GD, Ross MJ, McKeown DW, Ray DC. Tracheal intubation in the critically ill: a multi-centre national study of practice and complications. Br J Anaesth. 2012 Apr 12;108(5):792–9 Full text

Stevenson AGM, Graham CA, Hall R, Korsah P, McGuffie AC. Tracheal intubation in the emergency department: the Scottish district hospital perspective. Emerg Med J. 2007 Jun 1;24(6):394–7 Full text

Oglesby AJ, Graham CA, Beard D, McKeown DW. Paediatric intubation in Scottish emergency departments. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003 Sep;13(7):589–95

Theodosiou CA, Loeffler RE, Oglesby AJ, McKeown DW, Ray DC. Rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in elderly patients in the emergency department. Resuscitation. 2011 Jul;82(7):881–5

RSI in the ED by EPs
Walls RM, Brown CA, Bair AE, Pallin DJ, NEAR II Investigators. Emergency airway management: a multi-center report of 8937 emergency department intubations. The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2011 Oct;41(4):347–54

Fogg T, Annesley N, Hitos K, Vassiliadis J. Prospective observational study of the practice of endotracheal intubation in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 2012 Dec 6;24(6):617–24

Choi HJ, Je SM, Kim JH, Kim E. The factors associated with successful paediatric endotracheal intubation on the first attempt in emergency departments: A 13-emergency-department registry study. Resuscitation. 2012 Nov;83(11):1363–8

Intubation Success Rates by Prehospital Physicians
Gunning M, O’Loughlin E, Fletcher M, Crilly J, Hooper M, Ellis DY. Emergency intubation: a prospective multicentre descriptive audit in an Australian helicopter emergency medical service. Emerg Med J. 2009 Jan 1;26(1):65–9

Le Cong M. Flying doctor emergency airway registry: a 3-year, prospective, observational study of endotracheal intubation by the Queensland Section of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Emerg Med J. 2012 Feb 15;29(3):249–50

Lockey D, Crewdson K, Weaver A, Davies G. Observational study of the success rates of intubation and failed intubation airway rescue techniques in 7256 attempted intubations of trauma patients by pre-hospital physicians. Br J Anaesth. 2014 Jul 18;113(2):220–5

Vopelius-Feldt von J, Benger JR. Prehospital anaesthesia by a physician and paramedic critical care team in Southwest England. European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2012 Oct;:1

Airway Assessment
Greenland KB. Airway assessment based on a three column model of direct laryngoscopy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010 Jan;38(1):14–9 Full Text

Freund Y, Duchateau F-X, Devaud M-L, Ricard-Hibon A, Juvin P, Mantz J. Factors associated with difficult intubation in prehospital emergency medicine. European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2012 Oct;19(5):304–8

Shiga T, Wajima Z, Inoue T, Sakamoto A. Predicting difficult intubation in apparently normal patients: a meta-analysis of bedside screening test performance. Anesthesiology. 2005 Aug;103(2):429–37

Kheterpal S, Martin L, Shanks AM, Tremper KK. Prediction and outcomes of impossible mask ventilation: a review of 50,000 anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2009 Apr;110(4):891–7

Drugs
Morris C, Perris A, Klein J, Mahoney P. Anaesthesia in haemodynamically compromised emergency patients: does ketamine represent the best choice of induction agent? Anaesthesia. 2009 May;64(5):532–9

Reich DL, Hossain S, Krol M, Baez B, Patel P, Bernstein A, et al. Predictors of Hypotension After Induction of General Anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2005 Sep;101(3):622–8

Yoon SH. Concerns of the anesthesiologist: anesthetic induction in severe sepsis or septic shock patients. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2012;63(1):3 Full text

Shafer SL. Shock values. Anesthesiology. 2004 Sep;101(3):567–8

Sikorski RA, Koerner AK, Fouche-Weber LY, Galvagno SM. Choice of General Anesthetics for Trauma Patients. Curr Anesthesiol Rep. 2014 Jun 10;4(3):225–32 Full Text

Martyn JAJ, Richtsfeld M. Succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia in acquired pathologic states: etiologic factors and molecular mechanisms. Anesthesiology. 2006 Jan;104(1):158–69

Perkins ZB, Gunning M, Crilly J, Lockey D, O’Brien B. The haemodynamic response to pre-hospital RSI in injured patients. Injury. 2013 May;44(5):618–23

Cricoid Force
Harris T, Ellis DY, Foster L, Lockey D. Cricoid pressure and laryngeal manipulation in 402 pre-hospital emergency anaesthetics: Essential safety measure or a hindrance to rapid safe intubation? Resuscitation. 2010 Jul;81(7):810–6

Ellis DY, Harris T, Zideman D. Cricoid pressure in emergency department rapid sequence tracheal intubations: a risk-benefit analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Dec;50(6):653–65

Fenton PM, Reynolds F. Life-saving or ineffective? An observational study of the use of cricoid pressure and maternal outcome in an African setting. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 2009 Apr;18(2):106–10

Lerman J. On Cricoid Pressure: “May the Force Be with You.” Anesth Analg. 2009 Nov;109(5):1363–6 Full Text

Vanner R. Cricoid pressure. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2009 Apr;18(2):103-5

Hashimoto Y, Asai T, Arai T, Okuda Y. Effect of cricoid pressure on placement of the I-gel ™: a randomised study. Anaesthesia. 2014 May 28;69(8):878–82

SOPs and Cognitive Aids
Jaber S, Jung B, Corne P, Sebbane M, Muller L, Chanques G, et al. An intervention to decrease complications related to endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: a prospective, multiple-center study. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Nov 17;36(2):248–55

Jenkins B. Cognitive aids: time for a change? Anaesthesia. 2014 Jul;69(7):660–4

Marshall SD, Mehra R. The effects of a displayed cognitive aid on non-technical skills in a simulated “can‘t intubate, can’t oxygenate” crisis. Anaesthesia. 2014 Jun 11;69(7):669–77

Oxygenation Strategies
Weingart SD, Levitan RM. Preoxygenation and Prevention of Desaturation During Emergency Airway Management. Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Mar;59(3):165–175.e1

Weingart SD. Preoxygenation, Reoxygenation, and Delayed Sequence Intubation in the Emergency Department. The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2011 Jun;40(6):661–7

First Pass Success
Sakles JC, Chiu S, Mosier J, Walker C, Stolz U. The Importance of First Pass Success When Performing Orotracheal Intubation in the Emergency Department. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2013 Jan 13;20(1):71–8

Optimising View
Levitan RM, Mechem CC, Ochroch EA, Shofer FS, Hollander JE. Head-elevated laryngoscopy position: Improving laryngeal exposure during laryngoscopy by increasing head elevation. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Mar;41(3):322–30

El-Orbany M, Woehlck H, Salem MR. Head and Neck Position for Direct Laryngoscopy. Anesth Analg. 2011 Jul;113(1):103–9

Lee HC, Yun MJ, Hwang JW, Na HS, Kim DH, Park JY. Higher operating tables provide better laryngeal views for tracheal intubation. Br J Anaesth. 2014 Mar 18;112(4):749–55 Full Text

Levitan RM, Kinkle WC, Levin WJ, Everett WW. Laryngeal view during laryngoscopy: a randomized trial comparing cricoid pressure, backward-upward-rightward pressure, and bimanual laryngoscopy. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jun;47(6):548–55

Oh J, Lim T, Chee Y, Kang H, Cho Y, Lee J, et al. Videographic Analysis of Glottic View With Increasing Cricoid Pressure Force. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Apr;61(4):407–13

Kidd JF, Dyson A, Latto IP. Successful difficult intubation. Use of the gum elastic bougie. Anaesthesia. 1988 Jun;43(6):437–8

Levitan RM. Video Laryngoscopy, Regardless of Blade Shape, Still Requires a Backup Plan. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Apr;61(4):421–2

Choice of Tube
Farrow S, Farrow C, Soni N. Size matters: choosing the right tracheal tube. Anaesthesia. 2012 Aug;67(8):815–9

Rescue Techniques
Gerstein NS, Carey MC, Braude DA, Tawil I, Petersen TR, Deriy L, et al. Efficacy of facemask ventilation techniques in novice providers. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2013 May;25(3):193–7

Paix BR, Griggs WM. Emergency surgical cricothyroidotomy: 24 successful cases leading to a simple “scalpel-finger-tube” method. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 2011 Dec 7;24(1):23–30

Holm-Knudsen RJ, Rasmussen LS, Charabi B, Bøttger M, Kristensen MS. Emergency airway access in children – transtracheal cannulas and tracheotomy assessed in a porcine model. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2012 Nov 7;22(12):1159–65

Quality & Safety
Cook TM, Woodall N, Harper J, Benger J, on behalf of the Fourth National Audit Project. Major complications of airway management in the UK: results of the Fourth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 2: intensive care and emergency departments. Br J Anaesth. 2011 Apr 15;106(5):632–42 Full Text

Human Factors
Flin R, Fioratou E, Frerk C, Trotter C, Cook TM. Human factors in the development of complications of airway management: preliminary evaluation of an interview tool. Anaesthesia. 2013 May 18;68(8):817–25

Larsson J, Holmstrom IK. How excellent anaesthetists perform in the operating theatre: a qualitative study on non-technical skills. Br J Anaesth. 2012 Dec 12;110(1):115–21

Mercer SJ, Tarmey N, Mahoney PF. Military experience of human factors in airway complications. Anaesthesia. 2013 Oct;68(10):1081–2

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