This small study on traumatic arrests in children1 refutes the “100% mortality from traumatic arrest” dogma that people still spout and gives information on the mechanisms associated with survival: drowning and strangulation were associated with greater rates of survival to hospital admission compared with blunt, penetrating, and other traumas. Overall, drowning had the greatest rate of survival to discharge (19.1%).
I would like to know the injuries sustained in non-survivors, to determine whether they were potentially treatable. Strikingly, in the list of prehospital procedures performed, there were NO attempts at pleural decompression, something that is standard in traumatic arrest protocols in prehospital services were I have worked.
It is interesting to compare these results with those of the London HEMS team2, who for traumatic paediatric arrest achieved 19/80 (23.8%) survival to discharged from the emergency department and 7/80 (8.75%) survival to hospital discharge. They also noted a large proportion of the survivors suffered hypoxic or asphyxial injuries, whereas those patients with hypovolaemic cardiac arrest did not survive.
OBJECTIVE:To determine the epidemiology and survival of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) secondary to trauma.
METHODS:The CanAm Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Study Group is a collaboration of researchers in the United States and Canada sharing a common goal to improve survival outcomes for pediatric cardiac arrest. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Twelve months of consecutive data were collected from emergency medical services (EMS), fire, and inpatient records from 2000 to 2003 for all OHCAs secondary to trauma in patients aged ≤18 years in 36 urban and suburban communities supporting advanced life support (ALS) programs. Eligible patients were apneic and pulseless and received chest compressions in the field. The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Secondary measures included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, and 24-hour survival.
RESULTS:The study included 123 patients. The median patient age was 7.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 6.0-17.0). The patient population was 78.1% male and 59.0% African American, 20.5% Hispanic, and 15.7% white. Most cardiac arrests occurred in residential (47.1%) or street/highway (37.2%) locations. Initial recorded rhythms were asystole (59.3%), pulseless electrical activity (29.1%), and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (3.5%). The majority of cardiac arrests were unwitnessed (49.5%), and less than 20% of patients received chest compressions by bystanders. The median (IQR) call-to-arrival interval was 4.9 (3.1-6.5) minutes and the on-scene interval was 12.3 (8.4-18.3) minutes. Blunt and penetrating traumas were the most common mechanisms (34.2% and 25.2%, respectively) and were associated with poor survival to discharge (2.4% and 6.5%, respectively). For all OHCA patients, 19.5% experienced ROSC in the field, 9.8% survived the first 24 hours, and 5.7% survived to discharge. Survivors had triple the rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than nonsurvivors (42.9% vs. 15.2%). Unlike patients sustaining blunt trauma or strangulation/hanging, most post-cardiac arrest patients who survived the first 24 hours after penetrating trauma or drowning were discharged alive. Drowning (17.1% of cardiac arrests) had the highest survival-to-discharge rate (19.1%).
CONCLUSIONS:The overall survival rate for OHCA in children after trauma was low, but some trauma mechanisms are associated with better survival rates than others. Most OHCA in children is preventable, and education and prevention strategies should focus on those overrepresented populations and high-risk mechanisms to improve mortality.
1. Epidemiology of out-of hospital pediatric cardiac arrest due to trauma
Prehosp Emerg Care, 2012 vol. 16 (2) pp. 230-236
2. Outcome from paediatric cardiac arrest associated with trauma
Resuscitation. 2007 Oct;75(1):29-34