Tag Archives: neonatal

LMA for newborn resuscitation

An observational study of near term infants (34 weeks gestation to 36 weeks and 6 days) born in an Italian centre over a 5 year period showed that nearly 10% of near-term infants needed positive pressure ventilation at birth, confirming that this group of patients is more vulnerable than term infants. Most were able to be managed with either bag-mask ventilation (BMV) or with a size 1 laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Of the 86 infants requiring PPV, 36 (41.8%) were managed by LMA, 34 (39.5%) by BMV and 16 (18.6%) by tracheal intubation. Why not slap a tiny LMA on your neonatal resuscitation cart – it could come in handy!

Delivery room resuscitation of near-term infants: role of the laryngeal mask airway
Resuscitation. 2010 Mar;81(3):327-30

Therapeutic hypothermia for newborns

In three randomised controlled trials encompassing 767 infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, induced moderate hypothermia for 72 hours significantly reduced the combined rate of death and severe disability, with a number needed to treat of nine (95% CI 5 to 25). Hypothermia increased survival with normal neurological function, with a number needed to treat of eight (95% CI 5 to 17), and in survivors reduced the rates of severe disability and cerebral palsy. The studies used different cooling methods and different target temperatures (33-34 deg C vs 34-35 deg C), suggesting the method of cooling itself is not important as long as therapeutic hypothermia is achieved.
Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data
BMJ. 2010 Feb 9;340:c363

Neonatal Emergencies

‘THE MISFITS’ is a popular mnemonic to assist in identifying the cause of critical illness in the neonatal period.
T = Trauma (Accidental and Non Accidental)
H = Heart Disease, Hypovolemia, Hypoxia
E = Endocrine (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Thyrotoxicosis)
M = Metabolic (Electrolyte Imbalance)
I = Inborn Errors of Metabolism
S = Sepsis (Meningitis, Pneumonia, UTI)
F = Formula Mishaps (Under or Over dilution)
I = Intestinal Catastrophes (Intussusception, Volvulus, Necrotizing Enterocolitis)
T = Toxins / Poisons
S = Seizures
From: Tonia J. Brousseau, Ghazala Q. Sharieff Neonatal Emergencies
http://cme.medscape.com/viewarticle/557824 accessed 29/12/09

Neonatal prostaglandin E1 and apnoea

The risk of apnoea in neonates requiring prostaglandin E1 infusions for duct-dependent congenital heart disease is well described and often results in the recommendation to intubate prior to transfer. An American study of 202 transported infants on PGE1 shows a higher rate of transport-related complications in those that had been intubated. None of the 73 (36%) unintubated patients required intubation for apneoa during transport. These data are in keeping with a previous Australian study of 300 infants receiving PGE1 in which only 2 of 78 unintubated patients experienced apnoea.
To intubate or not to intubate? Transporting infants on prostaglandin E1
Pediatrics. 2009 Jan;123(1):e25-30